South China Sea

The Australia-India-Indonesia Trilateral: Fostering Maritime Cooperation between Middle Powers

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The Australia-India-Indonesia (AII) trilateral is an example of how the power structure in Asia has become multipolar. Conceived formally in Bogor in 2017, the AII has gradually progressed through senior-level meetings held in Canberra in 2018 and New Delhi in 2019. The grouping adds to the existing trilaterals in the region, such as the Japan-U.S.-India, Australia-India-Japan, and recent Australia-France-India groupings. The AII also complements the Quad (comprising Australia, India, Japan, and the United States), which has become a pragmatic mode of multilateral cooperation in the Indo-Pacific. Considering the myriad such groupings in the region, this essay examines what value the… Read More »The Australia-India-Indonesia Trilateral: Fostering Maritime Cooperation between Middle Powers