Backgrounders

ASEAN Treaty of Amity and Cooperation

The ASEAN Treaty of Amity and Cooperation provides guidance for intra-ASEAN cooperation, as well as ASEAN engagement with external partners such as the United States and China. The principles of the treaty reflect the ASEAN members’ historical preferences and priorities

Code for Unplanned Encounters at Sea

The Code for Unplanned Encounters at Sea is a non-binding multilateral agreement standardizing safety protocols, basic communications, and basic maneuvering at sea for ships and aircraft. Over twenty countries adopted the code in 2014 at the Western Pacific Naval Symposium

Fisheries Agreements

The Agreement for the Implementation of the Provisions of the United Nations Convention on the Law on the Law of the Sea of 10 December 1982 relating to the Conservation and Management of Straddling Fish Stocks and Highly Migratory Fish

United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea

The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), also called the Law of the Sea Convention or the Law of the Sea Treaty, is the international agreement that resulted from the third United Nations Conference on the

Defense Treaties

U.S.-Japan Security Treaty Between the United States of American and Japan (September 8, 1951) U.S.-Japan Security Treaty (January 19, 1960) The Guidelines for U.S.-Japan Defense Cooperation (November 27, 1978) The Guidelines for U.S.-Japan Defense Cooperation (September 23, 1997) The Guidelines

Maritime Delimitation Agreements and Decisions

China and the Philippines Merits award in the matter of the South China Sea arbitration before an arbitral tribunal constituted under Annex VII to the 1982 UN Convention on the Law of the Sea between the Republic of the Philippines

Security and Cooperation Agreements

U.S.-China Memorandum of Understanding between the Department of Defense of the United States of America and the Ministry of National Defense of the People’s Republic of China Regarding the Rules of Behavior for Air Safety and Maritime Encounters (November 9-10,

Factsheet: Submarine Cables

Backgrounder One of the most critical pieces of global infrastructure is the intercontinental network of undersea fiber-optic cables. This communications network transmits daily approximately $10 trillion in financial transactions data throughout the global economy and is the vehicle for over

Factsheet: The U.S. Freedom of Navigation Program

Background The U.S. Department of Defense describes the U.S. government’s Freedom of Navigation Program in a fact sheet on its website: As stated in the U.S. Oceans Policy (1983), the United States “will exercise and assert its rights, freedoms, and

Factsheet: Zones of Maritime Jurisdiction

The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) is an international agreement that was concluded in 1982 and entered into force in 1994. The convention contains a regime for governing the world’s oceans, outlining the rights and